L-Cysteine and glutathione restore the reduction of rat hippocampal Na+, K+-ATPase activity induced by aspartame metabolites.
Department of Experimental Physiology, Medical School, Athens University, P.O. Box 65257, GR-15401 Athens, Greece.
Studies have implicated aspartame (ASP) ingestion in neurological problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities after incubation with ASP or each of ASP metabolites, phenylalanine (Phe), methanol (MeOH) and aspartic acid (asp) separately. Suckling rat hippocampal homogenates or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were incubated with ASP metabolites. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Incubation of hippocampal or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with ASP concentrations (expected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) after ASP consumption of 34, 150 or 200mg/kg resulted in hippocampal enzyme activity reduction of 26%, 50% or 59%, respectively, whereas pure enzyme was remarkably stimulated. Moreover, incubation with hippocampal homogenate of each one of the corresponding in the CSF ASP metabolites related to the intake of common, high/abuse doses of the sweetener, inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, while pure enzyme was activated. Hippocampal Mg(2+)-ATPase remained unaltered. Addition of l-cysteine (cys) or reduced glutathione (GSH) in ASP mixtures, related with high/toxic doses of the sweetener, completely or partially restored the inactivated membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, whereas the activated pure enzyme activity returned to normal. CSF concentrations of ASP metabolites related to common, abuse/toxic doses of the additive significantly reduced rat hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas pure enzyme was activated. Cys or GSH completely or partially restored both enzyme activities.
PMID: 17602817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]